Tommy McKearney – Brexit and the Future of Ireland

A recent article in the Irish Times reported retired Irish diplomat Sean Ó hUigínn quoting Edmund Burke’s remark that the English have only one ambition in relation to Ireland, which is to hear no more about it. Undoubtedly, with the Brexit backstop causing turmoil in the House of Commons, senior members of the Conservative party would very likely secretly share that view. Many in Ireland might well suggest that had the English acted on Edmund Burke’s observation and left Ireland way back then, they might be experiencing fewer problems at the moment. However, we can’t change the past and the Irish question has returned to torment Westminster.

Whatever about history, the Brexit debate does not follow the same line of argument in Northern Ireland, as it does in Britain. Local protagonists make different, although paradoxically related, calculations when deciding their position on this issue. Moreover, London and Dublin are also playing the Ulster card, yet more often than not they both conceal the entirety of their reasoning for doing so.

Underlying every political issue in Northern Ireland is the constitutional question of whether the area should continue to be governed from London or have sovereignty transferred to Dublin. Magnifying the importance of this now are two crucial facts. In the first instance there is the perennial fixation on changing demographics, which are indicating the inevitability within the coming decades of a majority in favour of ending the union. This is compounded by the obvious failure of the Six Counties to function as a normal political entity.

It is not that people in Northern Ireland are unaware or indifferent to Brexit. It is however the case, that for the most part, they see it as secondary. A contributory factor to this outlook is the attitude of the British and Irish governments with the former speaking of the need to preserve the precious union and the latter raising alarm over a hard border. Unsurprisingly therefore, the two major local political parties, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and Sinn Fein have focussed on the constitutional impact of Brexit.

The DUP favours the hardest of withdrawal options in the hope that it will result in creating maximum divergence between north and south and thereby reinforce the partition of Ireland. While this position wins favour in Unionist heartlands (and among the European Research Group), it has caused concern among some middle-class Unionist supporters who fear economic disruption. Nevertheless, the party’s greatest fear is losing its niche as the principal defender of ‘Protestant Ulster’ and therefore feels obliged to persist with its policy.

Disappointingly for those on the left who wish to rupture with the EU, Sinn Finn has changed its long-time opposition to the EU. Instead of highlighting the neo-liberal threat from Brussels it now takes the flawed ‘Remain and Reform’ position. With a 55% majority in the Six Counties in favour of remaining, Sinn Fein is making the obvious case that London disregards the will of the Northern Irish. The party has also led a campaign that focuses on the possible, albeit greatly exaggerated, difficulties posed by a hard border.

Meanwhile the British and Irish governments are spinning their own self-serving tales around Brexit.

British Prime Minister Johnson rejects the backstop option claiming this is because of his deep and abiding affection for the union between Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In reality, this love affair is based firmly on Commons arithmetic. To stay in office and fend off a general election, the Tory party has had to retain DUP support. Nor is the Irish government completely frank either with its statements about the impact of Britain leaving the European Union. Dublin has focused greatly on the threat that this poses to the Good Friday Agreement in general and to the maintenance of peace in particular.

Alarmist claims about a return to the pre-1994 ‘Troubles’ are overdone. In spite of the recent death of journalist Lyra McKee, there is little evidence of any real appetite for a return to the widespread conflict of previous decades. If anything, the tragedy illustrated the depth of opposition to armed groups. Moreover, it should also be born in mind that Britain leaving the European Union will not, in itself, alter the constitutional position of Northern Ireland within the UK whether there is a withdrawal deal or not.

Let’s not forget either that both the British and Irish governments have stated categorically that they will not create infrastructure along the border. Boris Johnson has repeated on several occasions that the UK it will not impose tariffs on goods moving northwards. This means that any checks that may arise from a no-deal Brexit would be carried out in the Republic and there is every indication that these will take place well away from the frontier. Incidentally, since the island was partitioned almost a century ago there is no record of republicans ever attacking a southern Irish customs post.

In a nutshell, the Brexit debate in Ireland, North and South, has largely missed the essential elements of the argument. Northern Ireland is one of the poorest regions of the United Kingdom. Average income is 8.5% less than in Britain and average disposable income is less than 40% of that in London and the economy is in ongoing decline as evidenced by the difficulties faced by the once iconic Harland & Wolff shipyard. The economic situation in the Republic appears to be infinitely better. However, this disguises an increasingly unequal society with tens of thousands homeless, a two-tier health service leaving the less well-off at a major disadvantage and increasing number of workers in either low-paid or precarious employment.

On both sides of the border the answer to this lies in breaking with free-market capitalist economies, whether controlled by neoliberals sitting in London or in charge of the European Union. This in essence is the left wing case in relation to Brexit and applies to Ireland as much as it does to Britain. Instead of working people discussing the necessity of having democratic socialist control of the economy, the powers that be have diverted attention towards a highly unlikely resumption of armed conflict, export delays and possible traffic jams at border crossings.

Above all else, clarity and transparency around this issue are essential here in Ireland as well as in Britain. The LeFT campaign is therefore not just timely but very necessary and is entitled to all the support we can give it. 

Tommy McKearney (@Tommymckearney) is an Irish socialist republican, political activist and writer.

Martin Hall and Phil Katz – The LeFT Case for Leave

Protesters hold a banner during a rally in Athens, Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016. A nationwide 24-hour general strike called by unions against austerity measures disrupted public services across Greece on Thursday, while thousands marched in protest in central Athens. (AP Photo/Yorgos Karahalis)

As the clock ticks ever closer to Britain’s deadline for leaving the EU, people might be forgiven for wondering why a new socialist group pushing for the importance of getting the UK out of the EU is required. However, a quick look around at the political environment should make it clear that the socialist case has not made it into the majority of workplaces, trade unions nor our mainstream media.

The referendum in 2016 was presented as a battle between two opposing wings of the establishment: a Tory right high on post-imperial delusions versus a pro-EU establishment supported by the vast majority of big business, the CBI, the Bank of England and the Treasury. The working class was talked down to by both sides, with the assumption being that reactionary positions on immigration were the key to victory. When exit polling showed that the principal concern of leave voters was sovereignty, this made no difference to the narrative being pushed.

The reality is that in June 2016, for a multitude of reasons, the EU was rejected in the biggest democratic exercise in the UK to date. It was the first time citizens could vote for or against membership. In June 1975 no such vote was allowed, only a confirmatory vote to ‘stay in’, where membership was already locked in. During that first vote, the left strongly argued the case against remaining in. LeFT draws on that tradition and the case for a Left leave has never gone away.

Many argue that Leave is a lash up between right wing forces. How then to account for the millions of Labour voters who voted leave? Thousands of these had spent decades fighting austerity, to save the post office from privatisation, to stop pit closures, and to keep open a local library, or nursery. LeFT believes there was a strong left element to the Leave vote. But this voice was stifled by a near monopoly on media and a skewed democratic process that stopped alternative voices from being heard. 

Yet as soon as the opportunity for a real vote appeared, a majority of the working class voted to get out. Scare stories of shortages must not be allowed to spread panic and force us into hasty choices that do not suit the interests of working people. We remember only too well, the food mountains and wine lakes, and the throwing of excess dead fish stocks back into the ocean, whilst price hikes took such items out of reach for families facing austerity.

Once we leave there is a national debate to be had about the type of trade we engage in and with whom. LeFT intends to play an active part in arguing for a new kind of trade, especially with developing economies and advanced countries such as China, Russia, India and Brazil, that previously was funnelled through EU institutions, rules and regulations. It is possible to trade in a way that is different from EU trade treaties that are all too often grossly exploitative. 

It is in the interests of leading fractions of capital, tied as they are to markets in the EU, to suggest that the 17.4 million people who voted Leave did so because they were ignorant, or manipulated. But the picture is more complicated. Millions of Remain voters also had an intense distrust of the EU but were frightened by the consequences of a Leave vote, did not like some of the forces arguing for Leave (also true of many Leave voters) and thought that a Leave vote would align them with racists. 

One of the achievements of the EU has been to position itself as a defender of liberty and anti-racism. Yet a look at its Fortress Europe policy, its dirty deal with Turkey and its 800 kilometre wall to incarcerate millions of Syrians fleeing conflict suggests different. Then there is the use of ECJ rulings to provoke mass movement of working age citizens, the gutting of local economies and the make-up of its institutions and staffing, which actively discriminates against BAME citizens: all paint a very different picture. We recognise there is a job to be done to expose this reality.

If activists want to challenge neoliberalism and its symptoms, a task that can sometimes appear monumental, then a good place to begin is with a struggle against the EU, which alone in the world, as Tony Benn pointed out, enshrines capitalism in its constitution in a state-like organisation, but one without a mechanism for political contestation. Remain and Reform is an empty slogan. There has been forty years to try that approach and year on year, the centre has grown more powerful, democracy has been eclipsed, and austerity imposed in exchange for bail-outs, most strongly within the Eurozone.

No deal, soft deal and hard exits are false choices. None of these terms existed prior to the vote in June 2016, and were introduced into the language by a capitalist class seeking to limit the damage to itself that the Leave vote could bring about. LeFT seek a clean break, which is what people voted for. The pressing need is for a change of government so that a new left politics can govern the future pathway: based on investment, sustainable jobs, high skill, socialised medicine, health and welfare services and a radical change to the pension system. There must be a policy of peace and support for progressive governments abroad.

We cannot allow a position whereby the main force in opposition to privatisation and austerity, militarism and imperialism is divided into Remain and Leave. This is not the divide in our society, and we will not give credence to such vapid notions as culture wars, promoted by both the far right and the liberal centre. LeFT exists to bridge the growing gap on the left and bring the movement back together, to understand our common interests and concerns so that it can apply itself to transforming political alignments in Britain (and across the globe) in order to provide the threat of a good example to the working class everywhere. We are committed to creating places where working class remain and leave voters can discuss, understand and re-forge politics together.

Democracy is essential to any future. And democracy has been hollowed out in a number of ways in the last 40 years. One of these is the EU taking on more and more power while allowing for less and less contestation. The working class has to be united because in a class society, only the united strength of workers can keep the power of capital at bay. Once we leave the EU, that unity becomes more important as we seek to change the politics of the country in a radical and new direction.

Threats to this possibility come in a number of different guises.

One is the threat of a ‘government of national unity’, which is being trumpeted within the Westminster bubble and by a pliant media, with has-beens from the right and centre such as Ken Clarke and Harriet Harmen being suggested as figures to ‘bring the country back together’. In reality, in the context of having Jeremy Corbyn as leader of the opposition, this is nothing but an anti-left wrecking operation.  The events of the last few weeks, in which the most anti-Brexit forces in the land – the Lib Dems, for one, as well as the Greens – have refused to back Corbyn’s attempt to prevent a no deal Brexit, should have made it clear that the principal aim of the People’s Vote brigade is to prevent a Corbyn-led Labour government, in or out of the EU. We deeply regret the extent to which Corbyn and those who respect the referendum result in Labour have been forced into a corner, perhaps fatally damaging its chance of winning the general election that is just around the corner.  We also unreservedly oppose any attempt to set up a national government. It would have a similar impact on Labour as did the Ramsay MacDonald National Government of 1931, from which it took a generation and a war to recover. We say to Labour, before you go down that road, check the batteries on your smoke alarm.

After the exit from the EU politics will realign again and again. This will reflect class struggle and the relative balance between opposing classes. The return of an element of sovereignty, especially in Scotland and Wales, but also to Westminster will put those who want to go back into the bosses’ club on the back foot. Space will appear to bring larger numbers together for a politics of change. 

Institutions that the EU had hollowed out into little more than debating chambers will become relevant again and susceptible to mass action, protest and pressure. This is what many MPs in Westminster, Holyrood and Cardiff fear. It’s a huge opportunity for our labour movement.

Unions, which in some cases had been so weakened that they looked to Brussels for a veneer of legislation and aid, have come badly unstuck. EU grants have been used to shift jobs around, and – true to its origins – EU policy and institutions have speeded up the destruction of manufacturing jobs, while its ‘competition’ laws inhibit state intervention to rescue ailing companies and sectors. Whole communities have suffered as a result. With the power to act and intervene returning to government, unions can focus campaigns and struggle on new laws to protect workers and new initiatives to create jobs and sustain existing ones.

Attempts have been made to put the left case for leave in the past. In LeFT we wanted to gather the different forces from trades unions, large working class constituencies, local labour parties, and a range of socialist organisations to develop a coherent, principled left-wing perspective on the Brexit conjuncture. And we wanted to bring new forces in. Ours will not be a debating society. Nor will it have elaborate policies that all have to sign up to. It will include a high degree of exchange of views, but the emphasis is on campaigning and fighting for change.

We are a campaigning organisation, with an agreed set of core values and politics, enshrined in our founding statement. The aim is to build the power of the working class so that we can ensure the decision to Leave is implemented in the interests of the working class. We will campaign in working class communities for political change, to ensure there is no going back in. We invite you to campaign with us. Set up local groups. Hold public meetings and go into the market and city centres, and onto estates and workplaces and make the case for Leave – Fight – Transform

In this process of struggle for change, we will ally with and extend solidarity on the basis of internationalism. But this will not be limited only to those in struggle within the EU. Africa, Latin America and the Middle East face an ongoing onslaught from the power of the EU, and our solidarity is with the communities standing up to that.

We urge you to read our founding statement. Take it into work with you. Discuss it in your community groups, education establishments, and in any place where people congregate. If you agree with it, let us know. Sign up! And join the struggle to Leave – Fight – Transform

Martin Hall is a trade unionist, socialist and founding member of LeFT; Phil Katz is Designer, Author and Eastern District Secretary of the Communist Party.

Sean Shirley-Smith – Leave – Fight – Transform

This article by Sean Shirley-Smith, a founding member of the LeFT campaign, was originally published by Labour Hub.

Leave – Fight – Transform, or LeFT, is a grassroots campaign aiming to give voice to those on the left that desire a clean break with the European Union, to fight neoliberalism, and transform society. Founded by trade unionists, socialists, and community activists, it seeks to present a genuine alternative to the hard-right narrative of a Tory Brexit, as well as to the impossible demands of the ‘Remain and Revolt’ camp.

The vote to leave in 2016 was a vote for a fundamental change in society, as working-class people across the country uprooted the status quo of the old neoliberal economic model embodied by the European Union. The privatisation of our public services, and the brutal austerity implemented in the aftermath of the recession, may have been carried out by a Conservative government (enabled by the ever willing Lib-Dems) here in the United Kingdom, but it was in no way mitigated by the EU. Indeed, in regard to privatisation the EU has only sought to encourage it, as seen through the Fourth Railway Package that alters regulations in an attempt to create a single rail area and prevent the nationalisation of that industry.

It is for that reason among others, organisations such as the trade union RMT called for a vote to leave in 2016, and continue to advocate leaving the European Union today. The left’s failure to seize this crucial moment in history has seen us falter, with the argument to leave being dominated by a xenophobic and inward looking right, and the argument to remain dominated by liberals and centrists that are content with the pre-referendum status quo. Neither option is acceptable to any socialist, and it is why now more than ever we need a radical and transformative alternative.

The reasons to support a clean break with the European Union from a left-wing perspective are innumerable. From the long history of left Euroscepticism across the labour movement, at least until that fateful Jacques Delors speech at the Trade Union Congress in 1988, to the racist policies of the EU through its ‘Fortress Europe’ and imperialist customs union. The European Union is not a democratic structure; with its treaty-based obligations to impose regulation on state aid and competition in the market. It is not a reformable structure; with unanimous agreement needed from every EU member state to amend treaty law in order to remove the explicit pro-market and pro-capitalist ideals. It is not a progressive structure; with its willingness to ignore abuses of human rights in Hungary, Poland, and yes, the UK until very recently with its failure to do anything about the archaic abortion laws in the north of Ireland.

Many in the labour movement will know these terrible faults of the European Union, though the media often chooses to ignore them in favour of stoking anti-migrant hostilities or backing the status quo. Despite that, the dominant narrative at least on the national stage has been leaving the EU is regressive, anti-migrant, and dangerous. That is why LeFT is campaigning for an anti-racist, progressive, and socialist alternative.

The political reality means that come the next general election it is likely we will have already crashed out of the European Union with a Tory Brexit or ‘no deal’ situation. The Left and by extension Labour cannot simply campaign to immediately re-join the European Union, in what would be an affront to democratic principles. Instead we must enter an election pledging to utilise the greater latitude given to a government outside the constraints of the EU’s neoliberal order, to end austerity once and for all, to fundamentally transform the economy.

In 2017 the Labour manifesto pledged to renationalise the rail industry, to create a National Investment Bank, and to bring utilities under public ownership. Outside of the EU these pledges would actually be possible, unlike under EU membership as outlined by LeFT’s Alex Gordon and Jonathan White in the Morning Star back in 2017.

If by the time of the general election we remain in the EU despite Conservative promises to have left, there is an extraordinary opportunity to enter an election campaign pledging to exit the European Union on left-wing terms, assuaging the fears of many who are not unsympathetic to our cause but fear any exit under a Conservative government. A radical and transformative manifesto pledging investment in all nations and regions of the UK, alongside diversification of the economy and an end to a legal regime that privileges the rights of capital over people, would not only give hope to millions of working-class people, but ensure that the old logic of neoliberal capitalism was at last ended.

An election is coming, and the left needs to decide what it will do when that time arrives; whether in or out of the EU. Leave – Fight – Transform is not a negative campaign seeking to promote old memories of imperialism or narrow English nationalism. It is instead a positive and transformative campaign seeking to build something new. Capitalism is in crisis once again, class politics is back, and a new generation are determined to build socialism in our lifetime. Join our campaign to leave the EU, fight neoliberalism, and transform society.

Sarah Cundy – LeFT: Why we’re campaigning to leave, fight and transform

This article by Sarah Cundy, a spokesperson for the LeFT Campaign, was originally published by LabourList

‘Democracy is the most revolutionary thing in the world’ – Tony Benn

The capitalist world order is in crisis. The politicians we were told to trust with our planet and its people have engineered a situation of wage stagnation, spiralling debt, and a growing sense of powerlessness – a widening gap between the people and those who govern them. Throughout all of this, the imperative for constant growth has undermined the very ecosystem in which we exist.

The European Union is fundamentally an organ of this world order. Within its boundaries, irreconcilable conflicts between the nations who have organised the EU along the lines of their own economic and political interests have pushed the Euro towards collapse as internal crises are shifted onto their own periphery nations – often the ones hit hardest by the 2008 crash. As these internal crises weigh upon the people subject to them, the policy of Fortress Europe enforces inhumanity on the refugees on the Union’s own Mediterranean border.

Here in the UK, successive neoliberal governments have pursued this economic war on the working class in tandem with the EU: they have gutted our industries, housing and public services, and slashed rights for workers, migrants and the unemployed. These governments decided that prolonged suffering by working-class communities was a sacrifice worth making for the preservation of their system. As the government led by Margaret Thatcher speculated on the prospect of a “managed decline” for working-class communities across the country, ordinary people were left to pick up the pieces.

To the astonishment of the ruling class, the working class has demonstrated a desire for change, which is reflected both by the Corbyn movement and the vote to leave the EU in 2016. As socialists, it is our job to lead the way for a truly transformative programme, overcoming neoliberalism and working towards a radical, democratic, environmentalist and socialist agenda.

The potential is there in Labour’s left-wing programme – the fact that we are besieged by the representatives of the ruling class on a daily basis is evidence of this. Our programme has the potential to unite the working class in the fight for a truly democratic economy, and to combat the racist nationalism of Nigel Farage and Boris Johnson by preventing them from cynically appealing to a disaffected working class with their disaster capitalist agenda.

In the pursuit of these aims, we must refuse to align ourselves with a so-called “progressive alliance” alongside the cheerleaders of austerity, or to abandon our transformative potential through a “government of national unity”. Instead, we must unshakeably lead on leaving the EU and building a mass movement for a radical alternative.

The success of our programme and our movement depends on us not abandoning the working class, and on holding true to our promise to deliver a democratic, worker-led economy when in government. This requires a break from the economic and constitutional infrastructure of the EU – a break from the ‘four freedoms’, a break from the preservation of economic competition over economic justice, and a break from the undemocratic authorities that impose these restrictions on member states.

Leave – Fight – Transform was formed to champion this cause. We are a grassroots network of socialists, trade unionists and community activists committed to democracy, internationalism and socialism.

Alex Gordon and Paul O’Connell – The Mountain We Must Conquer

This article, written by two founding members of the campaign, was published in the Morning Star on the 10 August 2010 to coincide with the launch of Leave – Fight -Transform: The LeFT Campaign.

The Brexit conjuncture is about so much more than the UK’s membership of the European Union. The referendum called in 2016 to resolve internal power struggles in the Tory Party exposed a series of fissures in British society and revealed the desire of millions of people for a break with the status quo.

In this sense, the vote to leave the EU is a symptom of a much deeper malaise: namely, the slow, crushing breakdown of neoliberal capitalism. For thirty years prior to the Brexit vote neoliberal orthodoxy reigned supreme – and it produced declining real wages, attacks on workers’ rights, the gutting and commodification of public services and the hollowing out of democracy at every level. These morbid tendencies were exacerbated after 2008, with the imposition of brutal austerity, the proliferation of precarious work, homelessness and food banks (the latter greeted with applause by dead eyed Tory MPs).

As people’s living standards collapsed, and inequality rose to levels not seen since the Victorian era, political elites increasingly withdrew from the people they purported to govern.  Representative politics became managerialism and democracy was reduced to empty pageantry – a secure career path for ambitious, mediocre Oxbridge graduates. The arrogance with which Tory Prime Minister David Cameron used a national plebiscite to resolve internal party strife, represents just the tip of the ice-berg of a decayed political system.

In all its complexity, the Brexit vote represents a rejection of this status quo ante. It is a rejection by working class people of the precarity, insecurity, inequality and injustice of a system that they know to be stacked against them. It is a rejection of zero-hours contracts, agency work and the absence of collective rights in workplaces across Britain. It is a rejection of the retreat of the modern state seen in a decade and more of closures of public institutions from libraries, to fire stations across this country. Working class people saw these changes and on 23 June 2016 they seized their opportunity to reject the complacent system that produced them. 

Of course, grasping the character of the Brexit vote is no simple thing: both the mainstream Leave and Remain campaigns during the referendum were explicitly racist, though often expressed through the “respectable” racism of the middle classes. The longstanding paeans to “legitimate concerns” about immigration, the fostering of a culture of Islamophobia, and support for imperialist interventions around the world, produced fertile soil for more reactionary forces.

While working class people on both sides of the Brexit divide are crying out for an alternative, the British political class is, unsurprisingly, incapable of delivering it. Instead, having wound the clock of the Brexit vote, they wish now to cover their ears and block out the tolling of the bells. Faced with efforts (whether in the form of a “People’s Vote” or a so-called Government of National Unity) to overturn the first real say people have had in their lives for decades, the allure of the reactionary right will increase if the left positions itself as defenders of the status quo and loyal cheerleaders for the political establishment.

It for this reason that the left in the UK has to be at the forefront of the unfolding rupture with the status quo. While the crisis of neoliberalism produced the conditions for the Brexit vote, it also produced the Corbyn moment, a surge in support for a left-wing Labour Party and a manifesto promising democracy and the transformation of the economy. To deliver on this, the left has to spearhead the project of rupturing with the EU, and in so doing build the mass movement for the sort of radical alternatives in ownership, public services, workers’ and migrants rights and democratic participation that people are demanding.

Sections of the UK left who have not, or will not, grasp this central truth, instead throw themselves into delusions of remaining in the EU and reforming it. For anyone with even a modest understanding of the nature of the EU, it is clear that “remain and reform” is really just remain, with the meaningless slogan of reform tacked on as the spoon full of sugar to help the medicine go down.

While these sections of the left capitulate to Thatcher’s dictum that there is no alternative, grassroots trade unionists, socialists and community activists have come together to form a new campaign: Leave – Fight – Transform: The LeFT Campaign, to lead the fight for an alternative Britain, Europe and a transformed international order. For anyone serious about tackling inequality, advancing workers and migrants rights, rolling back the rise of the reactionary right, and beginning to seriously tackle the climate crisis the course is clear: we must rupture with the EU, which constitutionally enshrines neoliberalism’s dictatorship of no alternatives and the structural racism of Fortress Europe; we must fight for a transformative left government in the UK, that can deliver a program of radical change, and we must do this while reinvigorating the genuine internationalism of the working class. Given the ongoing crisis of capitalism, the rejection of the status quo by working people, and the spectre of a resurgent right, the left has to offer a genuine alternative. An alternative that is as radical as the crisis that confronts us and an alternative that has as its lodestone the interests of the working class, in all of its rich complexity. In the current conjuncture, we have to say no to austerity, no to neoliberalism, no to the EU, and yes to radical working class action to transform society. Rather than accepting the narrow terms set by the decaying middle classes, we say boldly: neither Boris nor Brussels, but the international working class.